Most often, editors of books, journals and other media will ask that parenthetical information be included in footnotes as a way to control the prose of the document. When used properly, a footnote is an excellent way to add to work or to quickly cite or reference quotes and other secondary information.
What Are Footnotes and Ho While reading a book or article, have you ever noticed little numbers placed at the ends of some sentences? These numbers usually appear as superscripts and correspond with numbers placed at the bottom of the page, next to which appears further information that is both necessary and supplementary.
Sometimes this information will come in the form of citations, but sometimes it will simply present additional notes about the topic at hand. These citations and explanations are called footnotes because they appear in the footer of the page. Take a look at the example below to see where footnotes appear on a page: Long explanatory notes can be difficult for readers to trudge through when they occur in the middle of a paper.
Providing this information is necessary, but doing so in the main text can disrupt the flow of the writing. Imagine if every time an author wanted to provide a citation, the entire citation had to be written out at the end of the sentence, like this Anthony Grafton, The Footnote: Harvard University Press, ] Books would become much longer and reading much more tedious.
That's why footnotes are so useful: Footnotes can include anything from a citation to parenthetical information, outside sources, copyright permissions, background information, and anything in between, though certain style guides restrict when footnotes can be used.
We'll get into that soon! Endnotes Authors can also use endnotes to avoid disrupting their writing with extraneous information. As with footnotes, the presence of an endnote is identified in the main text with a small superscript number.
However, instead of providing the correlating note at the bottom of the same page, endnotes are found collectively at the end of an article, chapter, or document.
When deciding whether to use footnotes or endnotesauthors must consider three main factors: However, footnotes are occasionally employed in other style guides as well. Modern Language Association MLA While MLA style discourages the use of long footnotes or endnotes, the style guide does permit their use for directing readers to other pertinent information on a relevant subject.
The guide recommends that superscript numbers within the text are placed outside any punctuation that might be present i. The exception to this is that the superscript numbers should be placed before dashes.
When a footnote must be placed at the end of a clause,1 add the number after the comma. When a footnote must be placed at the end of a sentence, add the number after the period. Even then, the guide recommends that footnotes only be used to provide content notes such as providing brief, supplemental information about the text or directing readers to additional information and to denote copyright permissions.
While CMS does allow the author—date system of in-text referencing i. In both cases, bibliographies are also required. Whether an author should use the author—date system or footnotes is often decided by the author's professor, journal, or publisher. As an example, if footnotes are used, the following format should be adhered to when referencing a book in CMS: Technical Guide to Using Footnotes To use footnotes in your own book, essay, or article, you must first decide on the most appropriate and logical placement of your footnotes in the text.
Add numbers according to your chosen style guide, and be sure to add the numbers directly after the phrase, clause, or sentence to which the corresponding footnote refers. Footnotes can be added quickly and easily using Microsoft Word. Here's how to use footnotes in Microsoft Word Click on the place in the text where you want the first number to appear.
In the References tab, there is a Footnotes group.
In that group, click the button that says Insert Footnote. After you click that button, two numbers should appear: Write your citation or additional information next to the number that appears in the footer. Format the information according to the rules of your style guide.
You've created your first footnote. You can also adjust the footnote settings like the numbering by clicking the arrow beside the Footnotes group.
It's really that easy! Final Tips and Tricks To avoid cluttering the page, you should use footnotes sparingly and only to provide helpful additions or citations.
As previously noted, this information may be considered supplementary, which is why it's best to place it away from the main portion of your writing.How to Cite a Website (and Achieve True Unagi) The Internet is a great resource for students, but websites can be difficult to cite correctly.
Find out how to cite a website in three major style guides. sample from HTML program and PDF book. 1. When you offer quotations from other people’s work in an essay, the sources of the information may sometimes be .
Edit Article How to Do Footnotes. Two Methods: Using Footnotes as Citations Using Footnotes to Clarify Information Community Q&A Footnotes are useful, as providing helpful supplementary information and citations at the bottom of a page of text. Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page and endnotes come at the end of the document.
A number or symbol on the footnote or endnote matches up with a reference mark in the document. Footnotes and Bibliography ( KB). The Use of Footnotes. Footnotes are the acceptable method of acknowledging material which is not your own when you use it in an essay.
Supporting Scholarship. The MHRA makes Conference Grants to support up to ten colloquia each year, allocated in two rounds. An important part of MHRA's work in the scholarly community is the support of younger colleagues entering the profession.