In addition to this paper, the DTD has also developed more detailed "focus" papers that share insights and best practices for various specific challenges such as mission command and cross-domain synergy, assessments, CCIR development and reporting, and lethal and nonlethal integration observed at joint headquarters. All of these papers are unclassified for broad accessibility. Perspectives on Changing National Security Institutions local copyby DiBella, in Joint Force Quarterly, 2nd quarter The question remains as to what images will best fit national security organizations in an age that contains both evolving asymmetric threats and the potential for traditional threats.
Introduction One of the major claims made regarding qualitative methods is that they diverge from scientific explanation models in terms of the need for hypothesis testing. A scientific hypothesis is based on a background theory, typically assuming the form of a proposition whose validity depends on empirical confirmation.
Otherwise, a hypothesis is nothing but an imaginative conjecture.
Moreover, when researchers do not obtain empirical confirmation for their hypothesis, the theory in question or part of it may not be able to predict relevant aspects of the phenomenon under investigation. Their primary interest is to achieve understanding Verstehen The influences of concept mapping strategy a particular situation, or individuals, or groups of individual, or sub cultures, etc.
In summary, qualitative methods are primarily inductive, in contrast to the deductive methods of experimental science. The debate centers around how we justify that what we know is valid. More specifically, induction is the form of reasoning based on empirical observation in the process of developing scientific laws and theories.
Thus, induction negotiates the relationship between empirical reality and its theorization, in addition to the production and validation of knowledge. For example, qualitative methods have been accused of reflecting the problems pointed out by philosophers of science e. In other words, qualitative researchers tend to prioritize logic emerging from experience, preferring to expand their knowledge from it as opposed to using a priori, deductive, concepts.
Qualitative researchers have for decades reacted to this distorted view of the field e. Of the many examples that could be cited, I highlight grounded theory methodology GTM. There are differences among researchers using this approach e. GTM rests in a state of permanent tension between 1.
What is the role of theory in qualitative research?
Alternatively, what function do empirical data play in the theorizing process? Answering these questions is important for the continuing advancement of qualitative methods as well as the inclusion of this field in the discussions of similar issues that have been witnessed in the philosophy of science.
As a starting point, I recapitulate the main characteristics of the so-called problem of induction, arguing that it raises important questions regarding the value of theory in science. Next, I review ways of describing the theory-empirical data relationship that have been proposed in order to address the problem of induction in the realm of the philosophy of science.
Against this backdrop, I discuss how qualitative researchers have dealt with the question of induction, using a "generic analytic cycle" common to qualitative methods as an illustration. In the last sections, I propose reconsidering the role of theory in qualitative research.
I argue for the need to recover a substantial definition of theory in these studies. According to HUME there are two primary ways to validate knowledge: Knowing facts is equivalent to identifying their causes and effects.
However, observing facts, describing them in their manifestation, does not amount to science. There must be a leap from the visible to the invisible, and herein lies induction: The inductive leap allows us, based on singular facts, to create statements about sets of facts and their future behavior.
What permits us to go from a singular fact to a statement about facts in general or future facts? According to HUME induction does not involve a logical base. The "statement about all" is not contained in the "statement about some.
HUME claims that it is merely habit that causes us to think that if the sun rose today, it will do so once again tomorrow. There is therefore a psychological component in this knowledge-building process.
In other words, HUME demonstrated that passing from some to all is an emotionally and imaginatively based process, and that the root of any knowledge is sensory experience. The past may not be the best guarantee for current knowledge; otherwise, how can we explain unpredictable events?
In the well-known analogy cited by POPPERthe fact that we observe innumerable white swans does not allow us to assume that there will never be a black one.
Another relevant question is distinguishing between empirical generalizations, based on the observation of a recurring number of singular cases, and universal generalizations, in the form of laws. Without resorting to metaphysics, how do we attest to the truth of universal laws, which establish necessary non-accidental connections between events, based on observations of singular cases only QUINE,p.
According to the skeptic HUME, all what we can do is create hypotheses about how things should occur, drawing from our own empirical experiences or habits; we can never determine the ultimate fundamentals of the phenomena.
This irrationality is based in HUME's opinion that our beliefs have more weight than rationality does in making up our understanding. They argue that a large number of observations, obtained experimentally over a wide range of circumstances, allow inference from the empirical particular to the theoretical universal.
Knowledge, they assert, can be constructed on the basis of repeated observations, to the point where no observational statements conflict with the law or theory thereby derived, or up to an established saturation point.Future Warfare: Rethinking the Principles of War - project by the Office of Force Transformation (OFT).
Have the Principles of War changed? Some think it is an interesting question, and to that end we have put together a team to examine this subject. Scope—This article discusses the types of career paths and career ladders that an employer can use to assist employees in their career progression within the organization.
Traditional career. Jo is a strategic thinker with 27 years of experience in the agri-food industry. His expertise covers the transformation chain from agricultural raw material to industrial food production but he is especially fascinated by the major societal issues surrounding nutrition and health and the role of .
Concept maps are a graphic representation of students’ knowledge. Having students create concept maps can provide you with insights into how they organize and represent knowledge.
This can be a useful strategy for assessing both the knowledge students have coming into . John Hattie developed a way of synthesizing various influences in different meta-analyses according to their effect size (Cohen’s d). In his ground-breaking study “Visible Learning” he ranked influences that are related to learning outcomes from very positive effects to very negative effects.
Hattie found that the average effect size of all the interventions he studied was In commerce, customer experience (CX) is the product of an interaction between an organization and a customer over the duration of their relationship. This interaction is made up of three parts: the customer journey, the brand touchpoints the customer interacts with, and the environments the customer experiences (including digital environment) during their experience.