Factors affecting soil formation Soils form from the interplay of five main factors namely Parent material, Time, Climate, Relief and Organisms.
Some of the important factors responsible for soil formation in India are as follows: Indian soils, like other parts of the world, reflect a combination of factors which have contributed to their formation.
In Indian conditions, there is wide diversity with respect to geographical setting, physiography, climate and vegetation. Consequently soils display a wide variety of physical and chemical characteristics. In India, soil formation is mainly related to the parent rock material, surface relief, climate and natural vegetation.
Animals, insects and man also play an important role in soil formation. Some of the important factors of soil formation are mentioned below: The material for soil formation is mainly derived from the rocks and is termed as the parent material by soil scientists. The parent material determines the colouration of the soil, its mineral composition and texture.
India possesses a great variety of parent material which is generally categorised into following six classes: The surface rocks are exposed to the process of weathering and suffer decay and decomposition.
In this process, the rocks are converted into fine grains and provide a base for the soil formation. The ancient crystalline and metamorphic rocks constitute greater part of the peninsular region. These rocks are basically granites, gneisses and schists which are rich in ferromagnesian materials.
Such rocks give rise to red soils on weathering. The red colour of these soils is largely due to the presence of iron oxide. The Cuddapah and Vindhyan rocks have weathered to give calcareous and argillaceous soils.
These soils are quite native. The Gondwana rocks give rise to comparatively less mature soils of more or less uniform character but of low fertility. The Deccan traps are composed of basalt.
Basalts are quite rich in titanium, magnetite, aluminium and magnesium. Consequently the weathering of these rocks has given rise to soils of darker colour.
The Tertiary and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks of extra peninsular India have given rise to soils with high porosity. These soils are generally immature recent ad sub recent rocks; result in alluvial soils on weathering.
For instance, sandy soils are normally cemented by iron. Here, the soil drainage and air space will depend on the resultant soil type and the compaction and cementation process. Factors That Affect Soil Formation. Time; Soil formation takes several hundreds to thousands of years to undergo significant changes and their eventual formation. Learn 5 Factors that affect soil formation with free interactive flashcards. Choose from different sets of 5 Factors that affect soil formation flashcards on Quizlet. Soil organic matter are remains of dead living things that is dead animals and plants. Decaying of dead living things which leads to formation of soil organic matter, is affected by number of factors .
The soils of the Northern Plain of India have been largely derived from the depositional work of the Himalayan Rivers. This depositional work has been continuing for thousands of years.
These are alluvial fertile soils consisting of fine silts and clay. These soils have little relation with the original rocks. On the other hand, the soils of peninsular plateau are generally coarse-grained and are closely related to the parent rocks. The peninsular soils are generally less fertile.
Relief influences the process of soil formation in many ways, the most important being the slope of land. Steep slope encourages the swift flow of water and hinders the process of soil formation.
There may even be soil erosion in areas of steep slope. Chambal ravines offer an important example of soil erosion.
The areas of low relief or gentle slope generally experience deposition and have deep soils. Because of this reason, there are thick layers of fertile alluvial soils in the northern plain of India whereas the soils are generally shallow in the plateau area.
The exceptions in the plateau are river basins where the soil layers are sufficiently deep.
The degree of slope also largely determines the fertility of soil. Climate is the single most important factor in soil formation.5 Factors Affecting Formation of Soil By: Haseeb Jamal / On: Apr 26, / Factors Affecting, Types of The formation of soil starts with the parent material and continues for a very long period of time taking years or more.
Soil scientists identify climate and organisms as “active” factors of soil formation because their influence over soil development can be directly observed.
For example, rain, heat, cold, wind, microorganisms (algae, fungi), earthworms, and burrowing animals can be directly observed influencing soil development.
For instance, sandy soils are normally cemented by iron. Here, the soil drainage and air space will depend on the resultant soil type and the compaction and cementation process. Factors That Affect Soil Formation. Time; Soil formation takes several hundreds to thousands of years to undergo significant changes and their eventual formation.
A. Moisture as a Soil-forming Factor: 1.
Discussion of Moisture Criteria; 2. Relationships between Soil Properties and Moisture Factors: a. Organic Constituents of the Soil; b.
Inorganic Constituents of the Soil. B. Temperature as a Soil-forming Factor: 1. Discussion of Temperature Criteria; 2. Relationships between Soil Properties and Temperature. C. Specifically, there are five main factors that create soil: parent material, climate, biology, topography and time.
Let's start with parent material.
This is the material that new soil forms from. Factors affecting soil formation Soils form from the interplay of five main factors namely Parent material, Time, Climate, Relief and Organisms. Parent material: This refers to the mineral material or organic material from which the soil is formed.